The V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts
Report Code: KNJ00006 | No. of Pages: 871 | Category: Technology
Publisher: SnS Telecom | Date of Publish: Mar-2019
Commonly referred to as V2X, vehicle-to-everything communications technology allows vehicles to directly communicate with each other, roadside infrastructure, and other road users to deliver an array of benefits in the form of road safety, traffic efficiency, smart mobility, environmental sustainability, and driver convenience. In addition, V2X is also helping pave the way for fully autonomous driving through its unique non line-of-sight sensing capability which allows vehicles to detect potential hazards, traffic, and road conditions from longer distances and sooner than other in-vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar, and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging).

Although legacy V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) technologies are currently in operational use worldwide for ETC (Electronic Toll Collection) and relatively simple V2I applications, advanced V2X systems – capable of supporting V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle), V2I and other forms of V2X communications – are beginning to gain broad commercial acceptance with two competing technologies vying for the attention of automakers and regulators:  the commercially mature IEEE 802.11p/DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) standard, and the relatively new 3GPP-defined C-V2X (Cellular V2X) technology which has a forward evolutionary path towards 5G.

With an initial focus on road safety and traffic efficiency applications, Toyota and GM (General Motors) have already equipped some of their vehicle models with IEEE 802.11p-based V2X technology in Japan and North America.  Among other commercial commitments, Volkswagen will begin deploying IEEE 802.11p on volume models in Europe starting from 2019, while Geely and Ford plan to integrate C-V2X in their new vehicles by 2021 and 2022 respectively. It is also worth nothing that a number of luxury automakers – including BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen's subsidiary Audi, and Volvo Cars – already deliver certain V2X-type applications through wide-area cellular connectivity and supporting infrastructure such as appropriately equipped roadwork trailers.

Despite the ongoing 802.11p/DSRC versus C-V2X debate, regulatory uncertainty and other challenges, global spending on V2X communications technology is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 170% between 2019 and 2022. SNS Telecom & IT predicts that by the end of 2022,  V2X will account for a market worth $1.2 Billion, with an installed base of nearly 6 Million V2X-equipped vehicles worldwide. 

The “V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of the V2X ecosystem including market drivers, challenges, enabling technologies, application scenarios, use cases, business models, key trends, standardization, spectrum availability/allocation, regulatory landscape, V2X deployment case studies, opportunities, future roadmap, value chain, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents market size forecasts from 2019 till 2030. The forecasts cover four submarkets, two air interface technologies,  10 application categories and five regions.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report.Topics Covered
The report covers the following topics: 
 - V2X ecosystem
 - Market drivers and barriers
 - V2V, V2I, V2P/V2D, V2N and other types of V2X communications
 - V2X architecture and key elements
 - V2X transmission modes, message sets and service capabilities
 - IEEE 802.11p, C-V2X and other enabling technologies for V2X communications
 - Complementary technologies including ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems), precision positioning, edge & cloud computing, network slicing, artificial intelligence, machine learning, Big Data and advanced analytics
 - Key trends including the adoption of V2X as an integral part of automakers' vehicle development roadmaps; commercial readiness of V2X systems capable of supporting both  IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X; launch of large scale, city-wide V2X deployments; availability of nationally and transnationally scalable V2X SCMS (Security Credential Management System) service offerings; emergence of motorcycle-specific V2X safety applications; use of V2V communications to support truck platooning systems; and delivery of certain V2X-type applications through  wide-area cellular connectivity
 - Review of more than 160 V2X applications – ranging from safety-related warnings and traffic light advisories to "see-through" visibility and fully autonomous driving
 - Business models for monetizing V2X applications
 - Examination of IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X engagements worldwide, including case studies of 22 live V2X deployments
 - Spectrum availability and allocation for V2X across the global, regional and national regulatory domains
 - Standardization, regulatory and collaborative initiatives
 - Future roadmap and value chain
 - Profiles and strategies of over 330 leading ecosystem players including automotive OEMS and V2X technology & solution providers
 - Exclusive interview transcripts from eight companies across the V2X value chain: Cohda Wireless, Foresight Autonomous Holdings, Kapsch TrafficCom, Nokia, NXP Semiconductors, OnBoard Security, Qualcomm, and Savari
 - Strategic recommendations for automotive OEMS, V2X technology & solution providers, mobile operators, cellular industry specialists and road operators
 - Market analysis and forecasts from 2019 till 2030

Forecast Segmentation
Market forecasts are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:

Submarkets
 - V2X Terminal Equipment
  ○ OBUs (On-Board Units)
  ○ RSUs (Roadside Units)
 - V2X Applications
 - V2X Backend Network Elements
 - V2X Security

Air Interface Technologies
 - C-V2X (Cellular V2X)
  ○ LTE-V2X
  ○ 5G NR (New Radio)-V2X
 - IEEE 802.11p
  ○ IEEE 802.11p-2010
  ○ IEEE 802.11bd/NGV (Next-Generation V2X)

Application Categories
 - Road Safety
 - Traffic Management & Optimization
 - Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information
 - Transit & Public Transport
 - Commercial Vehicle Operations
 - Emergency Services & Public Safety
 - Environmental Sustainability
 - Road Weather Management
 - Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications
 - Value-Added Services

Regional Markets
 - North America
 - Asia Pacific
 - Europe
 - Middle East & Africa
 - Latin & Central America

Key Questions Answered 
The report provides answers to the following key questions:
 - How big is the V2X opportunity?
 - What trends, drivers and barriers are influencing its growth?
 - How is the ecosystem evolving by segment and region?
 - What will the market size be in 2022, and at what rate will it grow?
 - Which regions and countries will see the highest percentage of growth?
 - What is the status of V2X adoption worldwide, and what is the current installed base of V2X-equipped vehicles?
 - What are the key application scenarios and use cases of V2X?
 - How does V2X augment ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) to improve active safety, traffic efficiency and situational awareness?
 - Can V2X improve road safety for pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and other vulnerable road users?
 - What are the practical, quantifiable benefits of V2X – based on early commercial rollouts and large-scale pilot deployments? 
 - What are the technical and performance characteristics of IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X?
 - Do VLC (Visible Light Communications)/Li-Fi and other short-range wireless technologies pose a threat to IEEE 802.11p and C-V2X?
 - Which V2X applications will 5G-V2X and IEEE 802.11bd systems support in the future?
 - How will V2X enable the safe and efficient operation of autonomous vehicles?
 - What opportunities exist for mobile operators and cellular industry specialists in the V2X ecosystem?
 - Who are the key ecosystem players, and what are their strategies?
 - What strategies should automotive OEMs, V2X technology & solution providers, and other stakeholders adopt to remain competitive?

Key Findings 
The report has the following key findings: 
 - Despite the ongoing 802.11p/DSRC versus C-V2X debate, regulatory uncertainty and other challenges, global spending on V2X communications technology is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 170% between 2019 and 2022. SNS Telecom & IT predicts that by the end of 2022, V2X will account for a market worth $1.2 Billion, with an installed base of nearly 6 Million V2X-equipped vehicles worldwide.
 - While Toyota and other DSRC proponents are pushing ahead with their plans to roll out IEEE 802.11p in North America, Europe and Japan,  pre-commercial C-V2X deployments have recently gained considerable momentum, spearheaded by cellular industry giants such as Qualcomm and Huawei – with support from automakers including Ford, BMW, Daimler, Groupe PSA, SAIC, Geely, Volkswagen's luxury brand Audi, and JLR (Jaguar Land Rover).
 - Regional markets are also visibly divided with the Chinese Government backing C-V2X, Europe leaning towards IEEE 802.11p through its recently published delegated act on C-ITS (Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems), and heated debates ensuing in the United States as a result of the 5GAA's waiver request to allow C-V2X deployments in the 5.9 GHz band.
 - As a result, a number of automotive OEMs are beginning to adopt a flexible approach by choosing to deploy different technologies in different regions as they commit to V2X. For example, although GM has equipped its Cadillac CTS sedan vehicles with IEEE 802.11p in North America, the automaker is actively working with business partners to prepare for C-V2X deployment in China.
 - Besides becoming a standard safety feature on an increasing number of vehicles, V2X communications technology – through its unique non line-of-sight sensing capability – will play a critical role in ensuring the safe and efficient operation of autonomous driving systems, particularly with the commercialization of next-generation V2X standards, specifically 5G-V2X and IEEE 802.11bd.
 - The globally harmonized 5.9 GHz band continues to remain the preferred spectrum for V2X communications technology, with the exception of Japan – where the national regulator has allocated a single 9 MHz channel in the frequency range 755.5 – 764.5 MHz for safety-related applications based on V2V and V2I communications.
 - Early discussions are ongoing for the potential use of new bands, most notably in the 3.4 – 3.8 GHz and 5.9 – 7.2 GHz frequency ranges, as well as millimeter wave spectrum for LOS (Line-of-Sight) and high data rate V2X applications. Recent field trials using 39 GHz spectrum in the United States have demonstrated that millimeter propagations for V2V communications can work well in the distance range of 100 meters, without advanced beamforming techniques.

List of Companies Mentioned
01LightCom
3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project)
5GAA (5G Automotive Association)
5G-Connected Mobility Consortium
7Layers
A1 Telekom Austria Group
AASA
AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials)
Abu Dhabi Department of Transport
ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers' Association)
ADI (Analog Devices Inc.)
AECC (Automotive Edge Computing Consortium)
Airbiquity
Airgain
Alibaba Group
Allgon
Alphabet
Alps Alpine (Alps Electric/Alpine Electronics)
Altran
Amphenol Corporation
Amsterdam Group
Anritsu Corporation
Apple
Applied Information
Aptiv (Delphi Automotive)
ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
Aricent
ARM Holdings
Arteris IP
ASECAP (European Association of Operators of Toll Road Infrastructures)
Association of Global Automakers
ASTM International
Aston Martin Lagonda
ASTRI (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute)
AT&T
ATA (American Trucking Associations)
ATEC ITS France
Athena Group
ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
Audi
Auto Alliance (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers)
Autoliv
Automatic Labs
Autotalks
Aventi Intelligent Communication
BAIC Group
Baidu
Battelle
BCE (Bell Canada)
Beijing BDStar Navigation
BJEV
BlackBerry
BMW Group
BMW Motorrad
Boréal Bikes
Brilliance Auto (Brilliance China Automotive Holdings)
Broadcom
Bureau Veritas
BYD
C2C-CC (CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium)
CAICT (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology)
CAICV (China Industry Innovation Alliance for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles)
CalAmp
CAMP (Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership)
Carsmart (Beijing Carsmart Technology)
CAT (Cooperative Automated Transportation) Coalition
CCC (Car Connectivity Consortium)
CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
CDOT (Colorado Department of Transportation)
CEDR (Conference of European Directors of Roads)
CEN (European Committee for Standardization)
CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)
CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
Certicom
CEST Co. (Center for Embedded Software Technology)
CETECOM
CEVA
Changan Automobile
Chemtronics
Chery
China Mobile
China Telecom
China Transinfo
China Unicom
Chunghwa Telecom
CICT (China Information and Communication Technology Group)
CiDi (Changsha Intelligent Driving Institute)
Cisco Systems
C-ITS (China ITS Industry Alliance)
Clarion
CLEPA (European Association of Automotive Suppliers)
CMC (Connected Motorcycle Consortium)
CMIoT (China Mobile IoT)
CNH Industrial
Cohda Wireless
Commsignia
Confidex
Connected Signals
Continental
ConVeX (Connected Vehicle-to-Everything of Tomorrow) Consortium
CSTI (Council for Science, Technology and Innovation, Japan)
Cubic Corporation
Cubic Telecom
Cybercom Group
Cypress Semiconductor Corporation
DAF Trucks
Daimler
Daimler Trucks
Danlaw
Datang Telecom Technology & Industry Group
DEKRA
Delphi Technologies
Denso Corporation
Derq
Desay SV Automotive
DFM (Dongfeng Motor Corporation)
DT (Deutsche Telekom)
DT&C
Ducati Motor Holding
DXC Technology
EATA (European Automotive and Telecom Alliance)
Econolite
EFKON
Ericsson
ERTICO – ITS Europe
ERTRAC (European Road Transport Research Advisory Council)
ESCRYPT
eSSys
ETAS
ETRI (Electronics & Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea)
ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
Eurofins Scientific
European Commission
Faraday Future
FAW Group
FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles)
Ferrari
FET (Far EasTone Telecommunications)
FEV Group
Ficosa
Firefly LiFi (Firefly Wireless Networks)
Flex
FLIR Systems
Fluidmesh Networks
Ford Motor Company
Foresight Autonomous Holdings
Forward Electronics
Fraunhofer FOKUS (Institute for Open Communication Systems)
Fraunhofer HHI (Heinrich Hertz Institute)
Fraunhofer IIS (Institute for Integrated Circuits)
Fraunhofer SIT (Institute for Secure Information Technology)
Fujitsu
GAC Group (Guangzhou Automobile Group)
GCF (Global Certification Forum)
Geely Auto
Geely Holding
Gemalto
GENIVI Alliance
Genvict
GM (General Motors)
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
Google
Gosuncn Technology Group
Great Wall Motor Company
Green Hills Software
Griiip
Groupe PSA
Groupe Renault
GSMA
HAAS Alert
Halla Group
Hancom MDS
Harada Industry
HARMAN International
Helix Technologies
HELLA
HERE Technologies
Hino Motors
Hirschmann Car Communication
HiSilicon
Hitachi
HKT
HNTB Corporation
Honda Motor Corporation
HORIBA MIRA
HSAE/Hangsheng Technology
Huali/iSmartWays Technology
Huawei
Hyundai Mobis
Hyundai Motor Company
Hyundai Motor Group
IAV
IBM Corporation
IDnomic
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
IMDA (Info-Communications Media Development Authority, Singapore)
IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group
Infineon Technologies
INRIX
Intel Corporation
InterDigital
Intertek
Invengo
IPC (Increment P Corporation)
ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada)
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
ISS (INTEGRITY Security Services)
Isuzu Motors
ITE (Institute of Transportation Engineers)
Iteris
ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
iTRONICS
ITS America (Intelligent Transportation Society of America)
ITS Asia-Pacific
ITS Australia
ITS Canada
ITS China
ITS Connect Promotion Consortium
ITS Info-Communications Forum
ITS Japan
ITS Korea
ITS Singapore
ITS Taiwan
ITS UK (United Kingdom)
ITT (IT Telecom)
ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
Iveco
JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
Jin Woo Industrial
JISC (Japanese Industrial Standards Committee)
JLR (Jaguar Land Rover)
JRC (Japan Radio Company)
JSAE (Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan)
Juniper Networks
JVCKENWOOD Corporation
Kapsch TrafficCom
Karamba Security
KATS (Korean Agency for Technology and Standards)
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
KDDI Corporation
Keysight Technologies
Kia Motors Corporation
KOSTAL Group (Leopold Kostal)
KPN
KSAE (Korean Society Automotive Engineers)
KT Corporation
KTM
Table of Contents 
1 Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Executive Summary
1.2 Topics Covered
1.3 Forecast Segmentation
1.4 Key Questions Answered
1.5 Key Findings
1.6 Methodology
1.7 Target Audience
1.8 Companies & Organizations Mentioned
 
2 Chapter 2: An Overview of V2X Communications
2.1 What is V2X Communications?
2.2 Key Characteristics of V2X Communications
2.2.1 Types of V2X Communications
2.2.1.1 V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle)
2.2.1.2 V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure)
2.2.1.3 V2P/V2D (Vehicle-to-Pedestrian/Device)
2.2.1.4 V2M (Vehicle-to-Motorcycle)
2.2.1.5 V2N (Vehicle-to-Network)
2.2.1.6 V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid), V2H (Vehicle-to-Home) & Adjacent-Concepts
2.2.2 Transmission Modes
2.2.2.1 Direct
2.2.2.2 Multi-Hop
2.2.2.3 Network-Assisted
2.2.3 V2X Message Sets & Service Capabilities
2.2.3.1 Periodic Awareness: CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message)/BSM (Basic Safety Message) Part 1
2.2.3.2 Event Triggered Safety Alerts: DENM (Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages)/BSM Part 2
2.2.3.3 CPM (Collective Perception Message)
2.2.3.4 MCM (Maneuver Coordination Message)
2.2.3.5 SPaT (Signal Phase & Timing)
2.2.3.6 MAP (Map Data Message)
2.2.3.7 GNSS Correction
2.2.3.8 SSM/SRM (Signal Status & Request Messages)
2.2.3.9 PSM (Personal Safety Message)
2.2.3.10 IVIM (Infrastructure-to-Vehicle Information Message), TIM/RSM (Traveler Information/Road Safety Message)
2.2.3.11 BIM (Basic Information/Infrastructure Message)
2.2.3.12 MCDM (Multimedia Content Dissemination Message)
2.2.3.13 Video & Sensor Information Exchange
2.2.3.14 Standard Voice & Data Services
2.2.3.15 PVD (Probe Vehicle Data)
2.2.3.16 PDM (Probe Data Management)
2.2.3.17 Other V2X-Specific Message Types
2.3 Wireless Technologies for V2X Communications
2.3.1 IEEE 802.11p/DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications)
2.3.2 C-V2X (Cellular V2X)
2.4 V2X Architecture & Key Elements
2.4.1 Vehicular OBUs (On-Board Units)
2.4.2 Non-Vehicular V2X-Capable Devices
2.4.3 RSUs (Roadside Units)
2.4.4 V2X Applications
2.4.4.1 V2X Application Software
2.4.4.2 V2X Middleware & Application Server
2.4.5 V2X Control Function & Cellular Network-Specific Elements
2.4.6 V2X Security Subsystem
2.5 Key Applications Areas
2.5.1 Road Safety
2.5.2 Traffic Management & Optimization
2.5.3 Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information
2.5.4 Transit & Public Transport
2.5.5 Commercial Vehicle Operations
2.5.6 Emergency Services & Public Safety
2.5.7 Environmental Sustainability
2.5.8 Road Weather Management
2.5.9 Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications
2.5.10 Value-Added Services
2.6 V2X Business Models
2.6.1 B2C (Business-to-Consumer): Premium Charge for Non-Safety Critical Applications
2.6.2 B2B (Business-to-Business): V2X Capabilities for Enterprise Vehicle Fleets, Road Operators & Transportation Agencies
2.6.3 B2B2X (Business-to-Business-to-Consumer/Business): Monetization Through Intermediaries
2.7 Market Drivers
2.7.1 Safety: Towards a Zero-Accident Environment
2.7.2 Traffic Efficiency: Minimizing Congestion & Streamlining Traffic Flow
2.7.3 Lessening the Environmental Impact of Transportation
2.7.4 Facilitating the Adoption of Smart Mobility Applications
2.7.5 Enabling Autonomous & Convenient Driving
2.7.6 Economic & Societal Benefits
2.7.7 Government-Led Efforts to Encourage V2X Adoption
2.7.8 Maturation of Enabling Wireless Technologies
2.8 Market Barriers
2.8.1 Lack of Critical Mass of V2X Equipped Vehicles
2.8.2 V2X Mandate Delays & Regulatory Uncertainties
2.8.3 The IEEE 802.11p vs. C-V2X Debate
2.8.4 Spectrum Sharing & Harmonization
2.8.5 Security & Privacy Concerns
2.8.6 Technical Complexity of Implementation
2.8.7 Business Model Challenges
2.8.8 Public Acceptance
 
3 Chapter 3: Key Enabling Technologies for V2X Communications
3.1 Legacy DSRC/ITS Technologies
3.1.1 CEN DSRC/MDR-DSRC/TTT-DSRC
3.1.2 915 MHz/UHF RFID
3.1.3 Active DSRC Systems
3.1.4 HDR DSRC
3.1.5 ITS Spot/ETC 2.0
3.1.6 VICS (Vehicle Information and Communications System)
3.2 IEEE 802.11p-Based DSRC Systems
3.2.1 WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment)
3.2.2 ITS-G5/C-ITS
3.2.3 ITS Connect/ARIB STD-T109
3.2.4 Other Variants
3.3 C-V2X Technology
3.3.1 LTE-V2X
3.3.2 5G NR-V2X
3.3.3 Interfaces for C-V2X Communications
3.3.3.1 PC5/Sidelink for Direct V2V, V2I & V2P Communications
3.3.3.1.1 Network-Coordinated Scheduling: PC5/Sidelink Transmission Mode 3
3.3.3.1.2 Distributed Scheduling: PC5/Sidelink Transmission Mode 4
3.3.3.2 LTE/NR-Uu for V2N Communications
3.4 Other Wireless Technologies
3.5 Complementary Technologies & Concepts
3.5.1 On-Board Sensors & ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems)
3.5.1.1 Sensing Capabilities for Safety & Awareness
3.5.1.2 Enabling Sophisticated ADAS Applications
3.5.2 Vehicle Safety Systems
3.5.2.1 Active Safety Systems
3.5.2.2 Passive Safety & Countermeasures
3.5.3 Other In-Vehicle Systems
4 Chapter 4: V2X Application Scenarios & Use Cases
4.1 Road Safety Applications
4.1.1 V2V Safety Applications
4.1.1.1 Longitudinal Collision Risk Warning
4.1.1.1.1 Forward Collision Warning
4.1.1.1.2 Frontal/Head-On Collision Warning
4.1.1.2 Side Collision Risk Warning
4.1.1.3 Intersection Collision Risk Warning
4.1.2 V2I Safety Applications
4.1.2.1 In-Vehicle Signage, Speed Limits & Safety Information
4.1.2.2 Infrastructure-Assisted Collision Risk Warning
4.1.2.3 V2I-Based Emergency Brake Alert
4.1.3 V2P/V2D, V2M & Other Safety Applications
4.1.3.1 Pedestrian, Cyclist & Other VRU (Vulnerable Road User) Detection
4.1.3.2 VRU Collision Warning
4.1.3.3 Pedestrian in Signalized Crosswalk Warning
4.2 Traffic Management & Optimization Applications
4.2.1 Traffic Light Optimal Speed Advisory
4.2.2 Intelligent Traffic Signal Control
4.2.3 Intelligent On-Ramp Metering
4.3 Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information Applications
4.3.1 Traffic Information & Recommended Itinerary
4.3.2 Enhanced Route Guidance and Navigation
4.3.3 V2X-Assisted Positioning
4.3.4 Point of Interest Notification
4.4 Transit & Public Transport Applications
4.4.1 Dynamic Public Transport Operations
4.4.1.1 Real-Time Trip Requests
4.4.1.2 Demand-Responsive Scheduling, Dispatching & Routing
4.4.2 Transit Signal Priority
4.4.3 Intermittent Bus Lanes
4.5 Commercial Vehicle Fleet & Roadside Applications
4.5.1 V2I-Based Data Collection for Fleet Management
4.5.2 Hazardous Material Cargo Tracking
4.5.3 Electronic Work Diaries
4.6 Emergency Services & Public Safety Applications
4.6.1 Approaching Emergency Vehicle Warning
4.6.2 Emergency Vehicle Preemption
4.6.3 Emergency Incident Traffic Management
4.6.3.1 Incident Scene Pre-Arrival Staging Guidance for Emergency Responders
4.6.3.2 Incident Scene Work Zone Alerts for Drivers & Workers
4.6.3.3 Emergency Communications & Evacuation
4.7 Environmental Sustainability Applications
4.7.1 Eco-Traffic Signal Timing
4.7.2 Eco-Traffic Signal Priority
4.7.3 Eco-Approach and Departure at Signalized Intersections
4.8 Road Weather Management Applications
4.8.1 V2X-Assisted Road Weather Performance Management
4.8.2 Real-Time Alerts and Advisories
4.8.3 Spot Weather Impact Warning
4.9 Value Added Services
4.9.1 Electronic "Drive-Thru" Payments
4.9.2 Wireless Advertising
4.9.3 Automatic Vehicle-Based Access Control
4.10 Autonomous Driving & Advanced Applications
4.10.1 Semi & Fully-Autonomous Driving
4.10.2 Cooperative Automated Maneuvering
4.10.3 Vehicle Platooning
4.10.4 Coordinated Signaling for Autonomous Vehicles & Platoons
4.10.5 Real-Time HD Mapping & Autonomous Navigation
4.10.6 Extended Sensors for Situational Awareness
4.10.7 See-Through Visibility
4.10.8 Remote/Tele-Operated Driving
4.10.9 Precision Positioning-Assisted Vulnerable Road User Protection
4.10.10 Data Uploads for Autonomous Driving Algorithm Tuning
4.10.11 Connected Powertrain Optimization
 
5 Chapter 5: V2X Deployment Case Studies
5.1 AACVTE (Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment): Setting a Standard for the Nationwide Implementation of V2X
5.1.1 Historical Roots: SPMD (Safety Pilot Model Deployment)
5.1.2 Transition from a Model Deployment to an Operational V2X Environment
5.1.3 AACVTE Deployment Status
5.1.4 Supported V2X Applications
5.1.5 Key Achievements & Future Plans
5.2 AURORA Connected Vehicle Test Bed: Promoting Safe, Smart Transportation Through V2X
5.2.1 Supporting Efforts for Safe, Smart Transportation in British Columbia & Canada
5.2.2 AURORA Test Bed Overview
5.2.3 Supported V2X Applications
5.2.4 Future Research Ventures
5.3 BMW Group: Pushing C-V2X Adoption Worldwide
5.3.1 Commitment to C-V2X Technology
5.3.2 Efforts to Urge the Adoption of Technology-Neutral Legislation for V2X Communications
5.3.3 V2X Engagements in Europe & Abroad
5.3.4 Supported V2X Applications
5.3.5 Commercial Rollout Plans
5.4 CDOT's (Colorado Department of Transportation) RoadX: Building Colorado’s IoR (Internet of Roads) with V2X
5.5 City of Wuxi's LTE-V2X Project: Deploying China's First City-Level V2X Implementation
5.6 Daimler: Leveraging Cellular Technology for V2X Applications
5.7 Ford Motor Company: Fast Tracking C-V2X Technology into Vehicles
5.8 GM (General Motors): Commercializing the World's First 5.9 GHz V2X-Equipped Vehicles
5.9 Groupe PSA: Pursuing Both IEEE 802.11p & C-V2X Technologies
5.10 Groupe Renault: Testing V2X Connectivity Under Real-Life Traffic Conditions
5.11 HKT/PCCW: Utilizing V2X to Empower Smart & Safe Mobility in Hong Kong
5.12 InterCor (Interoperable Corridors): Streamlining the Implementation of Cross Border & Interoperable V2X Services
5.13 Ipswich Connected Vehicle Pilot: Laying the Technical Foundations for V2X Rollouts in Australia
5.14 JLR (Jaguar Land Rover): Making Journeys Safe, Comfortable & Stress-Free with V2X
5.15 NTT DoCoMo: Leading the Path Towards Connected Cars & Roads of the Future with V2X
5.16 SAIC Motor Corporation: Powering Intelligent Connected Vehicles with V2X
5.17 Telstra: Making Australia's Roads Safe, More Efficient & Better-Prepared for Autonomous Driving with V2X
5.18 Toyota Motor Corporation: Bringing V2X to Mass-Market Vehicle Models
5.19 USDOT Connected Vehicle Pilots: Helping V2X Make the Final Leap into Real-World Deployment
5.20 Vodafone Group: Improving Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency with V2X
5.21 Volkswagen Group: Pioneering the Rollout of V2X-Equipped Vehicles in Europe
5.22 Volvo Group/Volvo Trucks: Enabling Truck Platooning & Commercial Vehicle Applications with V2X
5.23 Other Notable V2X Engagements
6 Chapter 6: V2X Spectrum Availability, Allocation & Usage
6.1 Frequency Bands for V2X Communications
6.1.1 Legacy V2I Systems
6.1.1.1 915 MHz
6.1.1.2 Other Sub-1 GHz Bands
6.1.1.3 2.4 GHz
6.1.1.4 5.8 GHz
6.1.2 Advanced V2X Technologies
6.1.2.1 760 MHz
6.1.2.2 3.4 – 3.8 GHz
6.1.2.3 5.9 GHz
6.1.2.4 Higher Frequencies
6.2 North America
6.2.1 United States
6.2.2 Canada
6.3 Asia Pacific
6.3.1 Australia
6.3.2 China
6.3.3 Japan
6.3.4 South Korea
6.3.5 Singapore
6.3.6 Taiwan
6.3.7 Thailand
6.3.8 India
6.3.9 Rest of Asia Pacific
6.4 Europe
6.4.1 EU & EFTA Countries
6.4.2 Turkey
6.4.3 Russia
6.4.4 Other Countries
6.5 Middle East & Africa
6.5.1 GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council)
6.5.2 Iran
6.5.3 Israel
6.5.4 South Africa
6.5.5 Rest of the Middle East & Africa
6.6 Latin & Central America
6.6.1 Brazil
6.6.2 Mexico
6.6.3 Rest of Latin & Central America
 
7 Chapter 7: Standardization, Regulatory & Collaborative Initiatives
7.1 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project)
7.1.1 Release 14: LTE-V2X/Phase 1
7.1.2 Release 15: eV2X (Enhanced V2X)/Phase 2
7.1.3 Release 16: 5G NR-V2X/Phase 3
7.2 5GAA (5G Automotive Association)
7.2.1 5G/C-V2X Advocacy Efforts
7.2.2 Working Groups
7.2.2.1 WG1: Use Cases & Technical Requirements
7.2.2.2 WG2: System Architecture & Solution Development
7.2.2.3 WG3: Evaluation, Testbeds & Pilots
7.2.2.4 WG4: Standards & Spectrum
7.2.2.5 WG5: Business Models & Go-To-Market Strategies
7.3 5G-Connected Mobility Consortium
7.3.1 5G-Based V2X R&D Efforts
7.4 AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials)
7.4.1 Frequency Coordination for V2X Communications
7.4.2 V2X Policy, Deployment Guidance & Related Efforts
7.4.3 Work on Connected Autonomous Driving
7.5 ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers' Association)
7.5.1 Connected & Automated Driving-Related Work
7.6 AECC (Automotive Edge Computing Consortium)
7.6.1 Edge Computing System Design for V2I & V2N Applications
7.7 Amsterdam Group
7.7.1 V2X Deployment Roadmap
7.7.2 Corridor Initiatives
7.7.3 Functional Specifications & Other V2X-Related Efforts
7.8 ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan)
7.8.1 ARIB STD T75: 5.8 GHz DSRC System for V2I Applications
7.8.2 ARIB STD T88: DSRC Application Sub-Layer
7.8.3 ARIB STD T110: DSRC Basic Application Interface
7.8.4 ARIB STD-T109: 760 MHz Advanced V2X System
7.9 U.S. ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy)
7.9.1 NEXTCAR (Next-Generation Energy Technologies for Connected & Automated On-Road Vehicles)
7.9.1.1 Use of V2X Connectivity for Vehicle Control & Powertrain Optimization
7.10 ASECAP (European Association of Operators of Toll Road Infrastructures)
7.10.1 V2X-Related Activities
7.11 Association of Global Automakers
7.11.1 Connected Automation Advocacy
7.12 ASTM International
7.12.1 Legacy DSRC Standards
7.12.2 ASTM E2213-03: 5.9 GHz DSRC MAC & PHY Specifications
7.13 ATA (American Trucking Associations)
7.13.1 V2X-Related Activities
7.14 ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions)
7.14.1 V2X Security Guidance & Requirements
7.14.2 Other V2X-Related Work
7.15 Auto Alliance (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers)
7.15.1 V2X-Related Activities
7.16 AUTOSAR (AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture)
7.16.1 V2X Stack Specifications
7.17 C2C-CC (CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium)
7.17.1 BSP (Basic System Profile) for V2X Systems in Europe
7.17.2 PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) for V2X Security
7.17.3 Advocacy Efforts to Preserve the 5.9 GHz Band for ITS-G5
7.17.4 Other V2X-Related Efforts
7.18 CAICV (China Industry Innovation Alliance for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles)
7.18.1 V2X Working Group
7.19 CAMP (Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership)
7.19.1 SCMS (Security Credential Management System) for V2X Communications
7.19.2 Other V2X-Related Efforts
7.20 CAT (Cooperative Automated Transportation) Coalition
7.20.1 CAV-ELT (Connected and Automated Vehicle Executive Leadership Team): CAV-Focused Working Groups
7.20.2 V2I DC (Vehicle to Infrastructure Deployment Coalition): V2I Working Groups
7.21 CCC (Car Connectivity Consortium)
7.21.1 V2X-Related Projects
7.22 CCSA (China Communications Standards Association)
7.22.1 LTE-V2X Standardization
7.23 CEDR (Conference of European Directors of Roads)
7.23.1 V2X-Related Activities
7.24 ConVeX (Connected Vehicle-to-Everything of Tomorrow) Consortium
7.24.1 C-V2X Field Trials & Demonstrations
7.25 CEN (European Committee for Standardization)
7.25.1 CEN TC 278
7.25.1.1 CEN DSRC Family of Standards
7.25.1.2 EFC (Electronic Feed Collection) & V2I Applications
7.25.1.3 Standards for C-ITS/Advanced V2X Systems
7.26 CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)
7.26.1 ITS-Related Standards
7.27 CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)
7.27.1 ECC (Electronic Communications Committee)
7.27.2 WG SE (Working Group Spectrum Engineering)
7.27.3 Frequency Arrangement for V2X Communications in Europe
7.28 C-ITS (China ITS Industry Alliance)
7.28.1 Chinese National Standards for V2X
7.29 CLEPA (European Association of Automotive Suppliers)
7.29.1 V2X-Related Activities
7.30 CMC (Connected Motorcycle Consortium)
7.30.1 Standardization for Motorcycle-Specific V2X Systems
7.30.2 Feasibility Testing & Prototyping
7.31 EATA (European Automotive and Telecom Alliance)
7.31.1 Efforts to Facilitate the Deployment of Connected & Automated Driving
7.32 ERTRAC (European Road Transport Research Advisory Council)
7.32.1 Working Group on Connectivity & Automated Driving
7.33 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
7.33.1 TC ITS (Technical Committee Intelligent Transport Systems)
7.33.1.1 ETSI TR 101 607: C-ITS (Cooperative ITS) Release 1
7.33.1.2 ETSI EN 302 663: ITS-G5 Access Layer Standard
7.33.1.3 ETSI TS 102 724: Harmonized Channel Specifications for ITS-G5
7.33.1.4 ETSI TS 102 792: Co-Existence Between CEN DSRC & ITS-G5
7.33.1.5 ETSI TS 102 687/103 175: DCC (Decentralized Congestion Control) Mechanisms
7.33.1.6 ETSI EN 302 665: ITS Communications Architecture
7.33.2 ETSI TC ERM (Electromagnetic Compatibility & Radio Spectrum Matters)
7.33.2.1 ETSI EN 302 571: Harmonized Standard for ITS-G5 (5.9 GHz) Spectrum
7.33.2.2 ETSI EN 302 686: Harmonized Standard for 63 – 64 GHz ITS Spectrum
7.33.3 Other Complementary Standards
7.34 EU Mandates & Directives
7.34.1 Action Plan for the Deployment of ITS
7.34.2 Mandate M/453 on Cooperative Systems for Intelligent Transport
7.34.3 EU ITS Directive 2010/40/EU
7.34.4 Supporting Groups for the EU ITS Directive
7.34.4.1 EIC (European ITS Committee)
7.34.4.2 European  ITS  Advisory  Group
7.34.5 Mandate M/546 on Urban ITS
7.34.6 Declaration of Amsterdam on Connected & Automated Driving
7.34.7 COM (2016) 766: EU C-ITS Strategy
7.34.8 Letter of Intent on Cooperative, Connected & Automated Mobility
7.34.9 Third EU Mobility Package
7.34.10 C-ITS Delegated Act Under Directive 2010/40/EU: Specifications for the Provision of C-ITS
7.35 EU-Funded V2X Deployment Initiatives & Projects
7.35.1 C-ITS Deployment Platform
7.35.2 C-Roads Platform
7.35.3 Cooperative ITS Corridor
7.35.4 InterCor (Interoperable Corridors)
7.35.5 CONCORDA (Connected Corridor for Driving Automation)
7.35.13.1 5GCAR (Fifth Generation Communication Automotive Research & Innovation)
7.35.13.2 5GCroco (5G Cross Border Control)
7.35.13.3 5G-Carmen (5G for Connected & Automated Road Mobility in the European Union)
7.35.13.4 5G-Mobix (5G for Cooperative & Connected Automated Mobility on X-Border Corridors)
7.36 EU-US C-ITS Task Force
7.36.1 HWG (Standards Harmonization Working Group) & HTGs (Harmonization Task Groups)
7.36.1.1 HTG 1: ITS Security
7.36.1.2 HTG 2: BSM (Basic Safety Message)/CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message) Harmonization
7.36.1.3 HTG 3: ITS Communications
7.36.1.4 HTG 4/5: Infrastructure Messages
7.37 GCF (Global Certification Forum)
7.37.1 C-V2X Certification Program
7.38 GENIVI Alliance
7.38.1 V2X-Related Activities
7.39 GSMA
7.39.1 C-V2X Advocacy Efforts
7.40 IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
7.40.1 ISO/IEC JTC 1
7.40.1.1 SC31 WG4: RFID Standards for V2I Applications
7.40.1.2 Other V2X-Related Standardization Activities
7.41 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
7.41.1 IEEE 802.11p/OCB for V2X Communications
7.41.2 IEEE 1609.x Family of Standards for WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments)
7.41.3 IEEE 802.11 NGV (Next Generation V2X) Study Group
7.42 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
7.42.1 IPWAVE (IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) WG
7.42.1.1 IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB
7.43 IMDA (Info-Communications Media Development Authority, Singapore)
7.43.1 TSAC (Telecommunications Standards Advisory Committee)
7.43.1.1 Technical Specification for DSRC
7.44 IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group
7.44.1 C-V2X Working Group
7.45 ISED (Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada)
7.45.1 Spectrum Allocation for V2X
7.45.2 RSS-252: Certification Requirements for V2X OBU Devices
7.46 ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
7.46.1 TC 204
7.46.1.1 V2X Communications
7.46.1.2 V2X Applications & Complementary Technologies
7.46.1.3 V2X Security
7.47 ITE (Institute of Transportation Engineers)
7.47.1 Connected Vehicle Initiative
7.47.2 Cybersecurity Framework & Tools for Roadway Infrastructure
7.47.3 Other V2X-Related Efforts
7.48 ITS America (Intelligent Transportation Society of America)
7.48.1 V2X Spectrum Advocacy
7.48.2 V2X Task Force
7.48.3 Other V2X-Related Efforts
7.49 ERTICO – ITS Europe
7.49.1 V2X Research, Pilot & Deployment Project Management
7.49.2 Other Efforts Related to Connected & Automated Driving
7.50 Other National & Regional ITS Representative Societies
7.50.1 ATEC ITS France
7.50.2 ITS Asia-Pacific
7.50.3 ITS Australia
7.50.4 ITS Canada
7.50.5 ITS China
7.50.6 ITS Japan
7.50.7 ITS Korea
7.50.8 ITS Singapore
7.50.9 ITS Taiwan
7.50.10 ITS UK (United Kingdom)
7.50.11 Others
7.51 ITS Connect Promotion Consortium
7.51.1 TD-001: Inter-Vehicle Communication Message Specifications
7.51.2 Other Specifications & Guidelines
7.52 ITS Info-Communications Forum
7.52.1 Guidelines for 760 MHz & 5.8 GHz V2X Systems
7.52.2 Work on C-V2X/Technology-Neutral Applications
7.53 ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
7.53.1 ITU-R (ITU Radiocommunication Sector)
7.53.1.1 SG5 WP5A, WG 5A-5 (Study Group 5, Working Party 5A, Working Group 5)
7.53.1.2 M.1453: ITS – DSRC at 5.8 GHz
7.53.1.3 M.1890: Guidelines & Objectives for ITS
7.53.1.4 M.2084: Radio Interface Standards of V2X Communications for ITS Applications
7.53.1.5 M.[ITS_FRQ]: Harmonization of Frequency Bands for ITS
7.53.1.6 V2X-Related Study Items & Supplementary Reports
7.53.2 ITU-T (ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector)
7.53.2.1 SG17: Recommendations for V2X Security
7.53.2.2 SG20: Framework & Requirements for C-ITS/Safety-Related Services
7.53.2.3 V2X-Related Recommendations in Other SGs
7.53.2.4 CITS (Collaboration on ITS Communication Standards)
7.54 JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
7.54.1 V2X-Related Standards
8 Chapter 8: Future Roadmap & Value Chain
8.1 Future Roadmap
8.1.1 Pre-2020: Early Commitments by Automakers & Other Stakeholders
8.1.2 2020 – 2025: Mass-Market Adoption of V2X for Road Safety & Traffic Efficiency
8.1.3 2026 – 2030: Towards Connected Autonomous Driving & 5G-Based V2X Applications
8.2 Value Chain
8.2.1 V2X Hardware & Software Suppliers
8.2.2 Automotive OEMs
8.2.3 Aftermarket Manufacturers
8.2.4 System Integrators
8.2.5 Application Service Providers
8.2.6 Communications Service Providers
8.2.7 Road Users & Operators
8.2.8 Other Ecosystem Players
 
9 Chapter 9: Key Ecosystem Players
9.1 A1 Telekom Austria Group
9.2 AASA/01LightCom
9.3 ADI (Analog Devices Inc.)
9.4 Airbiquity
9.5 Airgain
9.6 Alibaba Group
Many more ….
9.335 ZTE
 
10 Chapter 10: Market Sizing & Forecasts
10.1 Global Outlook for V2X Communications Technology
10.2 Segmentation by Submarket
10.3 V2X Terminal Equipment
10.3.1 V2X Terminal Equipment Revenue
10.3.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
10.3.2.1 C-V2X
10.3.2.2 LTE-V2X
10.3.2.3 5G-NR V2X
10.3.2.4 IEEE 802.11p
10.3.2.5 IEEE 802.11p-2010
10.3.2.6 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
10.4 V2X OBUs
10.4.1 V2X OBU Shipments & Revenue
10.4.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
10.4.2.1 C-V2X
10.4.2.2 LTE-V2X
10.4.2.3 5G-NR V2X
10.4.2.4 IEEE 802.11p
10.4.2.5 IEEE 802.11p-2010
10.4.2.6 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
10.5 V2X RSUs
10.5.1 V2X RSU Shipments & Revenue
10.5.2 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
10.5.2.1 C-V2X
10.5.2.2 LTE-V2X
10.5.2.3 5G-NR V2X
10.5.2.4 IEEE 802.11p
10.5.2.5 IEEE 802.11p-2010
10.5.2.6 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
10.6 V2X Applications
10.6.1 V2X Application Revenue
10.6.2 Segmentation by Application Category
10.6.2.1 Road Safety
10.6.2.2 Traffic Management & Optimization
10.6.2.3 Navigation & Traveler/Driver Information
10.6.2.4 Transit & Public Transport
10.6.2.5 Commercial Vehicle Operations
10.6.2.6 Emergency Services & Public Safety
10.6.2.7 Environmental Sustainability
10.6.2.8 Road Weather Management
10.6.2.9 Autonomous Driving & Advanced Application
10.6.2.10 Value-Added Services
10.7 V2X Backend Network Elements
10.7.1 V2X Backend Network Element Revenue
10.8 V2X Security
10.8.1 V2X Security Revenue
10.9 Global Installed Base of V2X-Equipped Vehicles & RSUs
10.9.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles
10.9.1.1 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
10.9.1.2 C-V2X
10.9.1.3 LTE-V2X
10.9.1.4 5G NR-V2X
10.9.1.5 IEEE 802.11p
10.9.1.6 IEEE 802.11p-2010
10.9.1.7 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
10.9.2 V2X RSUs
10.9.2.1 Segmentation by Air Interface Technology
10.9.2.2 C-V2X
10.9.2.3 LTE-V2X
10.9.2.4 5G-NR V2X
10.9.2.5 IEEE 802.11p
10.9.2.6 IEEE 802.11p-2010
10.9.2.7 IEEE 802.11bd/NGV
10.10 Regional Outlook
10.10.1 Submarkets
10.10.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment
10.10.1.2 V2X OBUs
10.10.1.3 V2X RSUs
10.10.1.4 V2X Applications
10.10.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements
10.10.1.6 V2X Security
10.10.2 Installed Base
10.10.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles
10.10.2.2 V2X RSUs
10.11 North America
10.11.1 Submarkets
10.11.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment
10.11.1.2 V2X OBUs
10.11.1.3 V2X RSUs
10.11.1.4 V2X Applications
10.11.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements
10.11.1.6 V2X Security
10.11.2 Installed Base
10.11.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles
10.11.2.2 V2X RSUs
10.12 Asia Pacific
10.12.1 Submarkets
10.12.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment
10.12.1.2 V2X OBUs
10.12.1.3 V2X RSUs
10.12.1.4 V2X Applications
10.12.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements
10.12.1.6 V2X Security
10.12.2 Installed Base
10.12.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles
10.12.2.2 V2X RSUs
10.13 Europe
10.13.1 Submarkets
10.13.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment
10.13.1.2 V2X OBUs
10.13.1.3 V2X RSUs
10.13.1.4 V2X Applications
10.13.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements
10.13.1.6 V2X Security
10.13.2 Installed Base
10.13.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles
10.13.2.2 V2X RSUs
10.14 Middle East & Africa
10.14.1 Submarkets
10.14.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment
10.14.1.2 V2X OBUs
10.14.1.3 V2X RSUs
10.14.1.4 V2X Applications
10.14.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements
10.14.1.6 V2X Security
10.14.2 Installed Base
10.14.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles
10.14.2.2 V2X RSUs
10.15 Latin & Central America
10.15.1 Submarkets
10.15.1.1 V2X Terminal Equipment
10.15.1.2 V2X OBUs
10.15.1.3 V2X RSUs
10.15.1.4 V2X Applications
10.15.1.5 V2X Backend Network Elements
10.15.1.6 V2X Security
10.15.2 Installed Base
10.15.2.1 V2X-Equipped Vehicles
10.15.2.2 V2X RSUs
 
11 Chapter 11: Conclusion & Strategic Recommendations
11.1 Why is the Market Poised to Grow?
11.2 Geographic Outlook: Which Countries Offer the Highest Growth Potential?
11.3 Review of V2X Engagements Worldwide
11.3.1 North America
11.3.1.1 United States
11.3.1.2 Canada
11.3.2 Asia Pacific
11.3.2.1 Japan
11.3.2.2 China
11.3.2.3 Rest of Asia Pacific
11.3.3 Europe
11.3.4 Middle East & Africa
11.3.5 Latin & Central America
11.4 Spectrum: Are There Any Feasible Choices Beyond 5.9 GHz?
11.5 Evaluating the Practical Benefits of V2X
11.6 The IEEE 802.11p/DSRC vs. C-V2X Debate: Which Technology will Succeed?
11.6.1 The Emergence of Two Opposing V2X Technology Camps
11.6.2 Is There a Clear Winner?
11.6.3 Flexible Approach: Different Technologies in Different Regions
11.7 IEEE 802.11bd: Is There a Future Evolution Path for 802.11p?
11.8 Can C-V2X Minimize the Cost of Roadside Infrastructure Build-Outs?
11.9 Which Applications Are Currently Supported by V2X-Equipped Production Vehicles?
11.10 Growing Focus on Motorcycle-Specific V2X Safety Applications
11.11 Use of V2V Communications to Support Truck Platooning Systems
11.12 Delivering V2X-Type Applications Through Wide-Area Cellular Connectivity
11.13 How Can V2X Facilitate Fully Autonomous Driving?
11.14 Addressing V2X Security Concerns
11.15 Strategic Recommendations
11.15.1 Automotive OEMs
11.15.2 V2X Technology & Solution Providers
11.15.3 Mobile Operators & Cellular Industry Specialists
11.15.4 Road Operators  & Other Stakeholders
 
12 Chapter 12: Expert Opinion – Interview Transcripts
12.1 Cohda Wireless
12.2 Foresight Autonomous Holdings
12.3 Kapsch TrafficCom
12.4 Nokia
12.5 NXP Semiconductors
12.6 OnBoard Security
12.7 Qualcomm
12.8 Savari

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